The latest wave of mergers in the oil industry began in the early 1960’s. Eight of the top twenty-five oil companies in 1960 had merged by 1970. Exxon bought Monterey Oil and Honolulu Oil. Chevron scooped up Standard Oil of KY. Atlantic Oil merged with Richfield Refining to form ARCO, then gobbled up Sinclair. Marathon Oil bought Plymouth Refining.
Another merger wave ensued in the 1980’s. Chevron bought Gulf in 1984. Texaco purchased Getty Oil, Mobil bought Superior Oil. BP grabbed both Britoil and Sohio (Standard Oil of OH). ARCO bought City Services. US Steel purchased Marathon Oil. The 1984 discovery of North Sea oil consolidated the position of Big Oil- especially RD/Shell and Exxon, whose Shell Expro JV was awarded the prime concessions. In 1985 Shell bought Occidental Petroleum’s Columbian interests. In 1988 it took over Tenneco’s assets in that country. The 1990’s saw Amoco (Standard Oil of IN) hitching its wagons to BP to form BP Amoco. In 1999 BP Amoco bought ARCO, giving the company 72% ownership of the Alaskan Pipeline.
A glimpse at the price consumers may pay for oil industry consolidation was provided in early 2001 when BP Amoco was implicated in a price-fixing scandal which caused huge spikes in pump prices in California over a five-year period. A series of 1998 emails between company executives talked of “shorting the West Coast market” of Alaskan crude and diverting it to Asian markets, selling it for less than they would have received from US refiners, with the goal of achieving “West Coast uplift scenarios”.  In late June 2006, BP was accused of trying to corner the US propane market. A month later a BP pipeline leak in Alaska was blamed when California gas prices broke $4/gallon.
Exxon bought Texaco Canada and Mexico’s Compania General de Lubricantes in 1991. Conoco was purchased by DuPont. The DuPont family fled the French Revolution, arriving in the US in 1799. Pierre Samuel DuPont was a close confidant of King Louis XVI of the Merovingan dynasty. DuPont Corporation was launched in 1802 and first manufactured gun powder.  The family established ties with the Bronfman family of Canada, who made their fortune bootlegging during Prohibition. Recently, DuPont spun off Conoco.
With the passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990 the Four Horsemen sold off their out-dated refineries to independent companies to avoid environmental cleanup costs. In 1993 Tosco bought an Exxon refinery at Linden, NJ and a BP Amoco refinery at Ferndale, WA. In August 1994 Clark USA bought Chevron’s Port Arthur, TX refinery, while Sun Oil bought Chevron’s Philadelphia refinery.  In March 1997, Texaco and RD/Shell merged their US refining operations.
The final and most dramatic wave of consolidation saw Exxon merge with Mobil in November 1999. That same year Chevron bought Thailand’s Rutherford-Moran Oil and Argentina’s Petrolera Argentina San Jorge. In July 2000 Chevron merged its petrochemical business with that of Phillips to form Chevron Phillips Chemical Company. That same year Chevron tied the knot with Texaco. On August 30, 2002 Conoco’s merger with Phillips Petroleum was approved creating Conoco Phillips, which in 2005 bought coal titan Burlington Resources. In 2002 RD/Shell bought up previously merged Pennzoil/Quaker State as well as Britain’s biggest remaining independent oil company- Enterprise Oil. In 2005 Chevron Texaco bought Unocal, after the latter rebuffed a Chinese offer.
The Four Horsemen have interlocking directorates with the international mega-banks. Exxon Mobil shares board members with JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup, Deutsche Bank, Royal Bank of Canada and Prudential. Chevron Texaco has interlocks with Bank of America and JP Morgan Chase. BP Amoco shares directors with JP Morgan Chase. RD/Shell has ties with Citigroup, JP Morgan Chase, N. M. Rothschild & Sons and Bank of England.
Former Citibank chairman Walter Shipley sits on Exxon Mobil’s board, as does Wayne Calloway of Citigroup and Allen Murray of JP Morgan Chase. Willard Butcher of Chase sits on the board of Chevron Texaco. Former Fed chairman Alan Greenspan came from Morgan Guaranty Trust and served on the board of Mobil. BP Amoco director Lewis Preston went on to become president of the World Bank. Other BP Amoco directors include Sir Eric Drake, the #2 man at P&O Nedlloyd and director at Hudson Bay Company and Kleinwort Benson. William Johnston Keswick, whose family controls Jardine Matheson, also sit on the board of BP Amoco. Keswick’s son is a director at HSBC. The Hong Kong connection is even stronger at RD/Shell.
Lord Armstrong of Ilminster sits on the boards of RD/Shell, N. M. Rothschild & Sons, Rio Tinto and Inchcape. Cathay Pacific Airlines owner and HSBC insider Sir John Swire is a director at Shell, as is Sir Peter Orr, who joins Armstrong on Inchape’s board. Shell director Sir Peter Baxendell joins Armstrong on the board of Rio Tinto, while Shell’s Sir Robert Clark sits on the board of the Bank of England. 
As a result of the deregulation craze in the US companies no longer have to report their top shareholders to the SEC. According to 1993 10K reports filed by the Four Horsemen, the Rothschild, Rockefeller and Warburg banking combines still control Big Oil. The Rockefellers exert control through New York mega-banks and Banker’s Trust, which in 1999 was purchased by Warburg-controlled Deutsche Bank in its bid to become the largest bank in the world. As of 1993 Banker’s Trust was #1 shareholder in Exxon. Chemical Bank was #4 and J.P. Morgan was #5. Both are now part of JP Morgan Chase. Banker’s Trust was also leading shareholder at Mobil. BP listed Morgan Guaranty as its biggest owner in 1993, while Amoco listed Banker’s Trust as its #2 shareholder. Chevron listed Banker’s Trust as its #5 shareholder, while Texaco listed J.P. Morgan as its #4 owner and Banker’s Trust as #9. Thus, Deutsche Bank and JP Morgan Chase, the banks of Warburg and Rockefeller, have increased shares in Exxon Mobil, BP Amoco and Chevron Texaco. Rothschild-controlled Bank of America and Wells Fargo exert West Coast control over Big Oil, while Mellon Bank also remains a big player. Wells Fargo and Mellon Bank were both top 10 shareholders of Exxon Mobil, Chevron Texaco and BP Amoco as of 1993.
Information on RD/Shell is harder to obtain since they are registered in the UK and Holland and are not required to file 10K reports. It is 60% owned by Royal Dutch Petroleum of Holland and 40% owned by Shell Trading & Transport of the UK. The company has only 14,000 stockholders and few directors. The consensus from researchers is that RD/Shell is still controlled by the Rothschild, Oppenheimer, Nobel and Samuel families along with the British House of Windsor and the Dutch House of Orange.
Queen Juliana of the Dutch House of Orange and Lord Victor Rothschild are the two largest shareholders of RD/Shell.  Queen Juliana is the richest woman in the world and patroness of the right-wing occult movement. Prince Bernhard, who married Juliana in 1937, was a member of the Hitler Youth Movement, the Nazi SS and an employee of Nazi combine I. G. Farben. He now sits on the boards of over 300 European companies. German Prime Minister Helmut Schmidt once paid the Prince $40 million to convince the Dutch government to buy Lockheed jets. 
Dean Henderson is the author of five books:Big Oil & Their Bankers in the Persian Gulf: Four Horsemen, Eight Families & Their Global Intelligence, Narcotics & Terror Network, The Grateful Unrich: Revolution in 50 Countries, Das Kartell der Federal Reserve, Stickin’ it to the Matrix & The Federal Reserve Cartel. You can subscribe free to his weekly Left Hook column @www.hendersonlefthook.wordpress.com